Biometrics solves the eternal concern about the ability to irrefutably prove identity using what makes you different. Human beings in prehistoric times already considered certain features, such as the palm of the hand, enough to identify individuals within a group. It is because of this that prehistoric civilizations used their palms as their signature in cave paintings.
The Chinese emperor, Ts’in She Huang-Ti, also used his fingerprint to authenticate certain stamps in the second century B.C. In the 19th century, Bertillon took the first steps in forensic scientific. He used the measurements taken from some anatomical features to identify repeat offenders, a technique that was often successful, but did not offer a real guarantee of reliability.
In later years, this innovative biometric method, which had been forgotten, was rediscovered by Willian James Herschel, construction official in charge of road construction in the Bengal region (Asia), to make an infallible record of its staff. He could find them in the event that they did not comply with the provisions of the contract. The urban police of the United Kingdom started using biometrics to identify citizens in 1901. In the USA its application started in New York in 1902 and later by the FBI in 1924.
The implementation of this new method is regulated only by the basic principle of identifying a person based on unique characteristics. The possibilities of applying biometric technology are growing exponentially in recent years, especially in areas that require document and identification management. In a large majority of cases, biometrics is combined with other security technologies, such as smart cards.